• Include commands like ls, cp, mv, mkdir, and rm.
  • Basic binaries for the system's basic function
  • Available to all users


  • Include commands like ifconfig, fdisk, init, and shutdown.
  • Binaries that are required for system administration and maintenance operations.
  • Used by the system administrator or root user.
  • Essential for administering and configuring the system.


  • User programs not managed by the distribution package manager